The Offshore Voyaging Reference Site

Things to Know About Anchor Chain

"Morgan's Cloud" on the hard at Billings Diesel and Marine in Stonington, Maine, with a pile of anchor chain frozen to a pallet at her bow during one of the three winters we spent at Billings refitting the boat.

One of the cool things about running this site is that gear manufacturers are now beginning to recognise the purchasing power and general clout that you, our readers, wield. So now when I ask a whole bunch of questions about a manufacturer’s products—many of them dumb, I’m sure—they are more likely to find the time to educate me than they once were.

This seems to be true of most all of the manufacturers we contact these days, but the good folks at Peerless Chain, manufacturers of Acco Chain, bent over backwards to educate me and sort out many of my misconceptions about chain by providing not just one, but three experts during a recent conference call I had with them.

Here are some useful things we learned.

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John, please include some content on gypsies as well. I find getting a match-up is not always as straight-forward as it should be.

Donna Evenson

Hi John, thanks for the wonderful article! It was a pleasure speaking with you. I just want to add a couple of clarifications to your article in regards to the embossing (stamping) of the G43 and G70 chains. The “ISO Short Link” dimension G43 that we manufacture and is used for anchoring, has a “G4” stamp on it. We also manufacture our standard “NACM” dimension chain that has the “P4” or “P43” stamp on it.

The G70 Chain can be stamped “P7” or “P70”.

Please let me know if you or your readers have any more questions.

Thanks, Donna

Colin Speedie

Hi Donna

I’ve only one question – how and when will we poor people in the benighted EU be able to get your excellent product?

I tried for ages to source G70 chain in Europe, and failed miserably – we have G40, and it’s been fine, but like John I like the idea of all chain and putting the weight in the anchor. If we could have sourced G70 we’d have been able to go down a size in chain dimension, and had an all chain cable.

Best wishes


Donna Evenson

We have several U.S. distributors who would be willing to drop ship product to you. It would be the ACCO brand, which is the chain featured in this article.

Colin Speedie

Thanks Donna

We’re heading slowly in your direction anyway, so we may well pick it up when we get there!

Stephen Brady

I know this is an old link, but i’m getting ready to purchase 275′ of 5/16″ G4 supposedly ACCO, but the links are stamped G43. Is this ACCO?

Stephen Brady

Thanks for the reply. Your stamping of G43 is contrary to the ACCO’s statement, “The “ISO Short Link” dimension G43 that we manufacture and is used for anchoring, has a “G4” stamp on it. We also manufacture our standard “NACM” dimension chain that has the “P4” or “P43” stamp on it.”
I just completed some research and found that West Marine’s ACCO 5/16″ ISO is stamped G4 and CMP’s Titan is stamped G43. A lot of boating news groups are stating ACCO’s quality going downhill and prematurely rusting.
I’m confused as to what to purchase.

Steve Dashew

Hi John:
A note re snubbers and shock loading. One of our Sundeer 64 ketches went through the big hurricane in Grenada some years back. She was anchored with Grade 7 Acco/Peerless 3/8″ chain, secured at the deck with a Maxwell chain lock, connected to an 80kg Bruce, and NO SNUBBER. She had headsails removed, but her very bulky main and mizzen were on their booms, and she was unattended. She was one of the few boats at anchor to survive. After this we ceased to worry about shock loads.

Nick Kats

This is good to hear, but it changes nothing for me. A taut chain undergoing shock loading is at high risk of tearing out the anchor, damaging the bow, or snapping the chain. It is very easy to put on a snubber (in this situation I would use a few snubbers) to spread out the shock should it happen.

Andy Fennymore-White

A word of caution for all the European readers. We were buying 200m of Grade 40 DIN 766 chain 5 years ago from an English well known chain manufacturer. (Claimed that they made the chain in the UK.) We fortunately asked for a sample and had it tested. The 1/2″ 13mm chain was claimed to be 3 Ton proof tested (and 8.6 t Break load) but yielded (initial distortion) at 2.8t and broke (actual destruction of the link, not a distortion) at just over 3.7tons. When we contacted them and offered the test result, they did not even question it. They just asked if we wanted to place the order! We bought from a Polish manufacturer (AIP) whose chain passed our test with flying colours. WL 2.1t, Proof L 4.3t, BL 8.6t. Check before buying if possible and do not believe the manufacturer’s claims. And always get a copy of the test cert and keep it on file.


Andy –
We too have heard of these types of stories, but Peerless Chain Company who manufactures the ACCO brand of marine chain, does proof test all of our marine chain and can provide a certification for any of the chain we manufacture and sell. I do agree that consumers should expect quality product from the manufacturers and ask the appropriate questions before buying a product. Glad to hear that you were able to obtain quality product for your boat.

Best Regards,

Doug Bruce


More good info us usual—thanks.
How does one decide what length of chain to carry for normal situations; e.g., places that do not require anchoring in extreme depths?
Thanks, Doug
P.S. The picture in your Rocna vs. Spade article is “Bluewater”, our Tayana 55 which you may identify as such if you wish.


We carry 50 to 60m of 3/8 or 10mm chain: this will allow us to anchor in up to 25m in normal conditions.

White Princess

Ken Good

John; Your article and the following posts are timely. I am still “serving my apprenticeship” and have just started to outfit our vessel for an extended cruise. Thanks for all the great info. Ken


Hi John, We will also be replacing our anchor chain next year. I totally agree about the snubber, though we have found about 10′ of rope to provide adequate snubbing in most conditions. Look also at chain hooks – claw types provide less sideways bend to the chain and are less liable to break it. I agree that re-galvanizing the chain is a waste of time – our chain is usually well worn on the inside of the link after 3 to 4 years in service. This degrades the working load by about 30 to 40%. Do your experts have any comments to make on electolysis? Using galvanised chain on a steel boat makes the chain look like an anode, and unless insulated from the yacht, the galvanising doesn’t last long. How do you cope with an aluminium hull?

Mike, White Princess

Marc Dacey

In light of my previous comments on galvanic action on boats, it’s very much an “it depends” situation, John. Proximity to a “leaky” marina or anchoring close to a compromised power line running beneath the harbour could in fact cause problems, but not likely in a couple of days. The solution, of course, involve the very same precautions I mentioned in a previous post on how to keep the aluminum and the steel from interacting. As far as I can determine, the various attachment points (chain hook, bitter end, bollards, etc.) are ideally electrically isolated from the hull, as is the windlass (with bushings, a HDPE pad, and so on). The current, if present, has nowhere to go. Of course, this assumes one has a painted deck in good order, which is not something I recall getting mentioned about alu boats very much, the “you don’t have to paint them!” aspect being touted as a Good Thing. Well, maybe, maybe not from the point of view of galvanic wastage.

On another point, I find the use of the terms “bridle” and “snubber” a little imprecise. I see a bridle as a nylon or “other” line run from bollards or cleat either side of bow more or less evenly, and shackled to the chain to reduce shock loads, increase quiet and lower the pivot point at the boat end of the catenary from the deck to the water itself. A snubber I see as a *single* line, with or without the rubber shock absorber commonly called a “snubber”, led from a plate or an attachment point forward to the chain or, for that matter, on a dock line. I assume when you specify 30 feet of line off the bow, you mean 15 feet of bridle either side of a shackle. But that’s just an assumption on my part.

Marc Dacey

Good to hear, John. I know considerably less about aluminum boats in practice than steel, other than that aluminum is less noble and the French make some beautiful boats out of it.

Had my budget allowed, it would have been my choice as I think it’s ideal in terms of allowing a fast cruising design in metal that you can work with power tools. I would learn how to weld it, just as I’m learning how to weld steel.

Do you use the typical zinc zincs or something else? Where do you keep them on the hull? How are they affixed?


Interesting article, however not sure to understand how a 30 feet snubber would work out unless you never anchored in depths of lets say less than 25 feet.

Dick Stevenson

Denis, I have used a long small diameter snubber for decades now. It eases everthing, especially the anchor resetting when abrupt and powerful wind shifts in squalls as it provides so much rubber band effect. In shallow water, I use less length, about the depth of water, with the rest coiled and ready to veer if things get boisterous. Dick Stevenson, s/v Alchemy

Dick Stevenson

I would not write off re-galvanizing. For years we anchored out 200+ nights a year. After 8 years or so the chain diameter (Acco G4) was not compromised, but the rust was just getting everywhere and was a cosmetic problem. We were in Turkey where I could find no chain whose history was known, so I re-galvanized in Antalya. Many other boats I know have done the same over the years. Three years later, the chain is still rust free and looking good and has been through some rough anchoring situations. In this area, as in so many, there is much anecdotal and little empiracal and the issue is so important that it leads to much wild thinking. (I turn end for end every 2 years.)
Dick Stevenson, s/v Alchemy, Guernsey, The Channel Islands

Dick Stevenson

John, Agreed. I just said don’t write re-galvanizing off as a possibility. When we get to England for the winter we will try to find some G4 chain from a good manufacturer. As to knowing the company doing the re-galvanizing when you are in out of the way places speaking a language I do not understand—sometimes you just keep your eyes open and cross your fingers. Dick Stevenson, s/v alchemy


Can stainless steel chain be BBB.

Donna Evenson

Suncor does make a 5/16″ and 3/8″BBB Stainless Steel Chain.

Judith Fabian

What grade chain do you recommend for a Belize 43 Cat? Grade 40 or grade 70? Only used in Caribbean, anchorages less than 30 feet deep. time to replace the 10 mm original chain. Love this site!

Colin Speedie

Hi Judith

I guess it depends on whether you want more chain in the rode, or more to the point how much chain you already have. I’m no expert on cats, but in my experience weight is always an issue with them, and many seem to use short lengths of chain in a mixed rode.

Going to G70 8mm would allow you to have more length of chain for the same weight, the only downside being that you’d have to change the gipsy on the windlass. But you’d gain from having a less vulnerable rode in terms of chafe and prop damage, plus the extra chain might help the boat to lie quieter.

Best wishes



In December 2011 I purchased 200’ of BBB 5/16, galvanized chain made by Acco, 4 months later my chain was rusted. I got a replacement and now my new chain is rusting event more than the first one. I got a second replacement. It steel in the delivery barrel it looks like electro plated not hot deep galvanized. I know it will rust again. Save yourself a lot of trouble don’t buy Acco chain.

Dick Stevenson

Gilbert, So sorry for your troubles. Messing with chain is a lot of work. I am very surprised to hear of Acco chain problems. I have used it for decades with good experiences only. My present chain (Acco, G4, 5/16″) lasted 8- 10 yrs before needing re-galvanising and we anchored 200+ nights per year those days. Could you have gotten chain that was not Acco in some kind of slippery shenanigans? Did you contact Acco directly? It would be a shame to lose a trusted name. Thanks for your report. Dick Stevenson, s/v Alchemy

Gary Jones

Very well written article and comments.

We have been an ACCO/Peerless distributor for a few years now and have had a lot of experience with many boaters and I think I have had only one complaint on ACCO’s galvanizing and that was recognized as a bad batch that inadvertently was shipped out and rectified immediately. ACCO was so well known for their galvanizing process that, from what I have been told, one of the main reasons Peerless bought the company was to get their galvanizing equipment. That said, of course it’s possible to get a bad batch of galvanizing but they will replace it with good – that’s what a reputable company does. The fact that Gilbert’s second batch of chain looks like a shiny zinc plating doesn’t necessarily mean that it is. Sometimes in the hot galvanizing process a white coating may develop and some manufacturers will run the chain though a shot blasting process to clean it off. That will leave the surface somewhat smooth but very shiny. As long as Gilbert’s chain is stamped “3B” and the label says “ACCO” he should be fine with his second batch. There is a lot of Asian chain out there that they buyer should be very wary.

Mark Hoenke

Regarding re-galvanizing. I found an alternative to Hot-dip in the melted zinc tank. Hot-dip BTW requires special equipment to first strip the old plating an to shake the chain as it exits the zinc tank so that the links remain seperated. It is done hot. It is difficult to find platers partly because it is an evironmental mess to operate. It is expensive.

In Muskegon Michigan, I found a sand blaster shop with a specialized chain tumbler for stripping the chain. It gently rolls the chain on a belt sling while metal beads are propelled by a rotating wheel onto the chain. Beads are recycled back tothe top and detritus is sucked away and filtered out. NICE! In 2010 it cost 70 bucks for 320 feet of 7/16 G4. The chain was cleaned to bare white metal – easy to inspect and necessary for re-coating.

For plating I used ARMOR GALVANIZE The owner met me at the door (Agritec in Holland Michigan) and handled my pre-stripped chain. Scattered around the shop were barrels of chain identical to mine, on its way to US aircraft carriers for securing jets on deck. This coating is superior to plain zinc as it is alloyed with hard materials for greater mechanical durability. This powder-process takes place in sealed drums at much lower temperature than hot-dip. 360 bucks in 2010.

Marc Dacey

A good tip and a reason to sail to Michigan…to get a load of chain redone!

Dick Stevenson

Marc, With regard to snubbers: for us this means a single line of 30 odd feet of 7/16 inch 3 strand nylon attached with a rolling hitch (a tad modified). This is for a 40 foot 30,000+ pound boat. There is no rubber shock absorber. The stretch of such a small line has always been more than sufficient. We also have a bridle of 5/8 inch 3 strand, each leg is 25 feet and able to be attached with a moused on metal attachment to the chain This is rarely used and for storms. It is good to ask for details for these terms as they are used to mean different things.
Dick Stevenson, s/v Alchemy

Marc Dacey

Thanks, Dick. Your terms match my understanding. I have yet to launch my own “Alchemy” and before we hauled for an endless refit, we had no call to make use of the half-inch plate at the waterline; the top hole pins the bottom of the bobstay, and the bottom is for a snubber as you describe.

Syd Alsobrook

I hate asking somewhat redundant questions but I can’t seem to find a definitive answer anywhere. Well I actually did find a page that had a table that showed if your boat was this big it generated X amount of pull it Y wind speeds but I can’t seem to find it again.

But I digress. We have a 43′ Spindrift full keel cutter. Last haul out showed 32,000 lbs. The anchor chain is old G4 5/16, the first 150′ looks good then rust spots and then a rusted ball. This is attached to a 32kg Northstar Bruce. I am planning to replace all of it starting with the chain. The plan is Acco G4 5/16 300′ with a 44lbs Spade. Is this the correct course of action? Thank you for the great site.

Syd Alsobrook

Thanks John,

The conversion to 3/8 would be a pain as changing out windless may not be that easy. Switching to G70 5/16 would be easier if it fits.


Dick Stevenson

John, Agree about going up a size in anchor. When you say G40 is a bit light, are you referring to the weight of the chain being too light or to the strength of the chain (or both)? Thanks, Dick

Dennis Fechner

I have a fundamental disagreement with those who say 30 feet of line is enough for a snubber in even a moderate blow. My experience is totally different. When anchored in with 100′ chain and 30 feet of anchor line out, the boat becomes uncomfortable in winds of 25 knots and greater. Even though I already have 6 to 1 scope out, I let out another 60 feet of line and the boat simply relaxes over the waves. This has been true in every boat I have had in every condition. And sometimes I let out 125 of line if the waves build up over 3 feet or the winds go over 40knots. Not for the holding but for the comfort.

In a big blow I think you need a minimum of 125 feet of line out to ease the strains. But I never see that even when the big boats look uncomfortable at anchor

To me all chain is not a good rode for any boat except in coral…that is the only place I would use it. My guess is that the ‘all chain people’ are simply saying that because they don’t have proper anchor lockers and simply have haws holes to drop the chain through so you almost have to buy the all chain cool aid….all the time.

I have been on 42 foot boats with all chain out and a small snubber in 30+ knots and it was jerky compared with the 100+ feet of line out on my smaller 32 foot boat.

1/2 chain and 1/2 line is, in my experience, the goal to reach for according to the average depths you intend to anchor in. I have NEVER dragged in 40 years with winds up to a steady 55 with higher gusts and have always found the ride to be smooth and comfortable. I have left open road stead anchorages in the middle of the night not caring to ride the 5 to 7 foot waves and simply sailed to a better anchorage.

I personally think the 20/30 foot snubber idea is an idea of convenience and has little basis in reality. But most of you probably disagree with that statement but it is my experience.

Dennis Fechner

Thanks for your comments, John and I respect them. On big boats it may also be that using 1″ line is not that much fun to store either.

I have another two question to ask you and everyone else:

What are peoples experience with the reinforced plastic thimbles? I have used one for 8 years on 9/16th 3 strand…the big one with closed loops holding the rode. I just swapped ends on my line and looked at the thimble….I did not find any wear where the galvanize shackle met the plastic. None. That surprised me as I anchor for 5 months of the year for 8 years. Plus the plastic did not cut into the rode like I have had stainless fittings do! So I installed another one at the other end of the line. So my experience has been good but probably not appropriate for a boat of your size. I wonder if anyone has had one of these fail or break on them. My boat fully loaded is only 8 tons .

Second…what are peoples experience with Brait vs 3 it worth the extra money….does is wear as well?


Hi Dennis,
We had nothing but good experiences over 2 years in the S. Pacific using Yale 8 Brait for 30 foot snubbers 3/4 inch and for our secondary anchor, 100 ft chain 200 foot 3/4 brait. We felt it had a lot more give than 3 strand nylon and held up better as far as wear was concerned especially as snubbers, seems like less friction wear. More expensive but easy to store about 1/3 the area as 3 strand 3/4 nylon and it didn’t get tangled in its locker space.

Dennis Fechner

Thanks Steve for your comments on 8 Brait line. It certainly is more expensive but it does store so much more easily. I am glad to hear that it held up so well….I think I will try a length of it and see….I use 9/16 3 strand with a breaking strength of 9400 lbs which works for my Rival 8+ ton boat. I thought the 5/8ths at 12,000lbs was going to be too big so I will look for a Brait with a similar breaking strength.

One thing I thought about doing in a hurricane was to have about a 140′ length of 5/8 Yale Brait and attach it in the middle of two pieces of 60’+ of 5/16 HT chain so I could end up with almost 10 to 1 in 30 feet….average depth in Sea of Cortez. That way the line stays in the water and cannot over heat and supplies the needed shock protection when winds go over 100 and the waves pick up to 5 to 6 feet even in a protected anchorage. The chain supplies the needed chafe protection just were it leaves the boat. I also plan on anchoring from the stern if at all possible.

Dick Stevenson

I have spent most of my cruising life with hybrid rodes, usually 60 feet of chain and then 3 strand nylon. I now have 12 years of all chain with a 35 foot very light snubber, like a big rubber band. I have not found the comfort level noticeably different between the two, but I am talking about different boats. You mentioned the 42 foot had a small snubber, which if sized large, say 5/8 inch as many do, would very likely snatch and grab at every wave and create the discomfort you found and reported. A very light snubber acts quite different and smooths things out impressively.
One concern is that hybrid rode allows for more wandering of the boat in blows. This is most problematic when the boat rides up much farther towards the anchor in a lull when there is a good deal of nylon out and then when the gust hits the boat has far more distance to travel where it is picking up momentum the whole way and snatches up on the anchor. This does not happen so violently with all chain as there is considerably less distance to pick up steam. I want steady forces on my anchor in a blow and to minimize large fluctuations. My sense is that all chain does better at this.
The second plus to all chain is that I take up much less space. Sometimes the anchorage is crowded, sometimes it is small, but it always is better to take up less space. Your options always increase.
Finally, we use only 3 strand nylon. Nylon braid does not stretch as much and in my somewhat limited experience, gets easily snagged and develops small “hernias”. Our 3 strand dock lines (we bought top quality) are 10+ years old of full time live-aboard use and going strong. With 3 strand they are easily spliced to make a repair that returns the line to almost as good as new.
Dick Stevenson, s/v Alchemy

Dick Stevenson

John, We actually used 3/8 inch for years, but I finally could not tolerate how insubstantial it looked (performed fine) and the last 6+ years have been using 7/16 inch 3 strand. Still looks small, but performs like I want it to. Dick

Dennis Fechner

Good last few points on snubber size….it is possible that the boat I was on had too large a line……and a friend of mine on a 50 footer used 3/4 and I think that was too big and the reason for the jerks during gusts.

I usually use enough chain to have out at least 3 to 1 on chain and then the rest line as I see fit. I know Beth and Evans only used 75 feet of chain all around the world except in the South Pacific where they added another 75 feet. They said the 75 allowed them to anchor on all chain almost all around the world and the few times they had to let out more scope were happy for the line…up to 20 to 1 in a muddy harbor.

If I ever get to the South Pacific I will install 275 feet of 1/4 inch HT instead of using 5/16 BBB. Too many other things to carry to put 300 lbs into the bow. I will have to change the gypsy…another expense.

Interesting comment on Braid not stretching as much as 3-strand. But I am talking about the new 8 strand BRAIT. I use NE premium 3 strand and it has held up very,very well. I know in a recent test of rodes the above out did all other nylon rodes in the chafe department so until I hear that Briat does as well I will forget the temptation to replace my 3 strand but I do love the way Brait stores so easily. But 3-strand is easy to splice as Dick says.

I understand that in Europe Brait is what they prefer so perhaps I will buy a length of it and try it out.

I use BRAID for my drogue because it does not stretch as much.

Dick Stevenson

Dennis, You mention hurricanes which brings a neglected point to mind. I believe one of the unplanned for, but quite common, dangers in hurricanes are other boats dragging down on you (actually the following concern not exclusive to hurricanes, just easier to handle when the wind is more moderate). In a prior vessel, we weathered Hurricane Bob in Onset, Mass. The harbor was destroyed. Many (most?) of the boats on shore were moored and had their mooring lines cut 20 feet or so from the bow by boats dragging back on them and cutting their rope mooring pennants with their props rudders etc. It seemed likely that they might have stayed in place otherwise. There were 5 anchored boats and in the 1-2 day preparation we had we divied up the anchor field to make it least likely that a dragging boat would meet another. One anchored vessel had to cut away one of his anchors because the “2 anchor V bridle” was “catching” a dragging vessel. All anchored vessels were unhurt. Two of the 4 were on hybrid lines and, in a post hurricane discussion, we all agreed that chain was an important protection against dragging boats. We also felt having 2 (most of us had 3) anchors out was problematic because of the funneling in of dragging boats potential, but did not come to any solution. I have decided that the number of anchors deployed is a situational decision to be taken at the time.
My best, Dick Stevenson, s/v Alchemy

Dennis Fechner


Other boats, especially unattended ones is the biggest problem in big winds. Agreed. But if you have to cut your anchor rode I suspect I would rather have line to cut and not chain. That said, maybe my thought of have a mid line between two pieces of chain is not such a good idea if someone else drags down on me.
Which goes right to Johns advice on picking the right anchorage!
I know that in the Sea of Cortez there is one up North that is so popular that too many boat will show up as they did one year. So I have decided to use my brain like John suggests and pick a place which might have a bit more exposure but way fewer boats and lots more room. So my pick is Bahia Conception. The other reason is storm surge….that is the only anchorage in Baha where the surge can go to 15+ feet and it would not matter while Don Juan and Puerto Escondido might be wiped out by surge if not wiped out by unattended boats dragging down on you. My pick would be a bit more exposure to the waves and less to other boats and lots of room!

I completely agree that using 1 BIG anchor is the way to go…where to put the 100+ foot of line is my only question and boats dragging and cutting the mid placed line is a possibily I had not thought about so thanks. Other than that I sort of liked the idea.

And because one might have to cut the rode I think having another anchor ready to go even if on short chain and very long line is a smart thing to do as well. I sure hope I never have to do this but pre thinking about things is always the way to go.
Thanks for your imput.


Have you considered/tried any of the zinc sprays. I know it isn’t as effective as hot dip galvanizing, but the cost is quite reasonable and it makes it relatively easy to recoat once or twice a year just by spraying. The main issue I see is to ensure the entire chain gets coated, but if you spray, let dry, move then spray another can’s worth in a second pile it seems like it would be ok. I’ve already bought the can of spray for my chain, but I only sail freshwater right now so I doubt it will give you a good test.


One of the links (10mmDia) of my anchor chain got bent by 7 mm during handling.This chain is fitted on small interceptor boat.I have repaired the bent by cold pressing. Will it loose the mechanical properties?


With (almost) any metal part, if you bend it far enough for it to yield and hold the new shape, you have changed the microstructure of the metal.
Exactly what consequence that change will have, well, that depends on a lot of things (metal composition, the process by which it was made, etc.). But, generally speaking, it will be weaker than the original.

Denis Moonan

I am finally getting around to trying to solve a 2 year old problem. Three years ago I bought new chain in Panama represented by Abernathy’s as BBB Acco made. A year later I replaced the my windless and discovered eventually that my chain was not as represented. When comparing 4′ length of my chain to 4′ of 3B Acco, my BBB had 4 fewer links, hence each link was slightly longer. I think I now know that BBB is not the same as 3B. Does any one know what chain I actually have? Two years of 200 +/- days at anchor have done quite a job wearing off the galvanize. At this point I am at the crossroads of deciding whether to replace the chain or the Gypsy, assuming Imtra can find a better match. Also my 5 year old 22kg Rockna is looking pretty grim cosmetically. Is there any reliable galvanizers near Maine, or should I just paint it until I can find one on my way south next fall?

Fair winds, Denis Moonan S/V Glide